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The idea that plants have some degree of consciousness first took root in the early 2000s; the term “plant neurobiology’ was coined_around the notion that some aspects of plant behavior could be attributed to intelligence in animals. Though plants lack brains, the firing of electrical signals in their stems and leaves nonetheless triggered responses that hindered at consciousness, researchers previously reported.

But such an idea is untrue, according to a new opinion article. Plant biology is complex and fascinating, but it differs so greatly from that of animals that so-called evidence of plants’ intelligence is inconclusive, the authors wrote.

Beginning in 2006, some scientists have argued that plants possess neuron—like cells that interact with hormones and neurotransmitters, forming “a plant nervous system, analogous to that in animals,” said lead study author Lincoln Taiz, “They even claimed that plants have “brain-like command centers” at their root tips.”

This perspective makes sense if you simplify the workings of a complex brain, reducing it to an array of electrical pulses; cells in plants also communicate through electrical signals.However , the signaling in a plant is only superficially similar to the firing in a complex animal brain, which is more than “a mass of cells that communicate by electricity,” Taiz said.

“For consciousness to evolve, a brain with a threshold level of complexity and capacity is required,” he added .” Since plants don’t have nervous systems, the chances that they have consciousness are effectively zero.”

And what’s so great about consciousness, anyway? Plants can’t run away from danger , so investing energy in a body system which recognize a threat and can feel pain would be a very poor evolutionary strategy, according to the article.

21.maintaining their plastic items

All of which creates huge headaches for institutions, such as museums, trying to preserve culturally important objects.

22.inherently flawed

the polyurethane foam he used is inherently unstable.

23.prevent them from further damage

Van Oosten calls those chemicals “sunscreens” because their goal was to prevent further light damage and rebuild worn polymer fibers.


Despite success stories like van Oosten’ s, preservation of plastics will likely get harder.

25.has profound historical significance

what we decide to collect today, what we decide to preserve ... will have a strong impact on how in the future we’ll be seen.

26.reassess the necessity of college education

it may be worth considering just how the point, purpose and value of a degree has changed and what Gen Z need to consider as they start the third stage of their educational journey.

27.the shrinking value of a degree

As degrees became universal, they became devalued. Education was no longer a secure route of social mobility.

28.employers are taking a realistic attitude to degree

Employers have long seen the advantages of hiring school leavers who often prove themselves to be more committed and loyal employees than graduates.

29.further their studies in a specific field

In this age of generalists, it pays to have specific knowledge or skills.

30.Lifelong learning will define them

they will need to be constantly up-skilling throughout their career to stay agile, relevant and employable

31.received favorable responses

Enlightening, challenging, stimulating, fun.

32.art can offer audiences easy access to science

Artists help scientists reach a broader audience and make emotional connections that enhance learning.

33.their role may be underestimated

Nor should their work be considered only as an object of study.

34.It exemplified valuable art-science alliances.

The founders deliberately focused their projects around light-hance the “visual studies” in the name. Light was a something that both artists and scientists had an interest in, and therefore could form the basis of collaboration.

35.should do more than communicating science

Nature’ s poll findings suggest that this trend is as strong as ever, but, to make a collaboration work, both sides need to invest time, and embrace surprise and challenge.

36.protect the rights of ordinary workers

The personal grievance provisions of New Zealand’s Employment Relations Act 2000 (ERA) prevent an employer from firing an employee without good cause.

37.hinder business development

But these provisions create difficulties for businesses when applied to highly paid managers and executives.

38.Dismissing poorly performing managers

the low quality of managerial capabilities as a cause of the country’ s poor productivity growth record

39.Employees suffer from salary cuts

And firms pay staff less because firms carry the burden of the employment arrangement going wrong

40.is difficult to put into practice

However, the mechanisms proposed were unwieldy and the Bill was voted down following the change in government later that year

43.Greg Newberry

[A] Zoos which spare no effort to take care of animals should not be subjected to unfair criticism.

[B] To pressure zoos to spend less on their animals would lead to inhumane outcomes for the precious creatures in their care.

42.Karen R. Sime

[C] While animals in captivity deserve sympathy, zoos play a significant role in starting young people down the path of related sciences.

44.Dean Gallea

[D] Zoos save people trips to wilderness areas and thus contribute to wildlife conservation.

[E] For wild animals that cannot be returned to their natural habitats, zoos offer the best alternative.

41.Teri Byrd

[F] Zoos should have been closed down as they prioritize money making over animals' wellbeing.

45.John Fraser

[G] Marris distorts our findings which actually prove that zoos serve as an indispensable link between man and nature.

46.It was also, and this is unknown even to many people well read about the period, a

battle between those who made codes and those who broke them.


47) It listed many documents in code that had been captured from the French army of Spain, and whose secrets had been revealed by the work of one George Scovell, an officer in British headquarters.


48) he could not analyze carefully what this obscure officer may or may not have contributed to that great struggle between nations or indeed tell us anything much about the man himself.


49) There may have been many spies and intelligence officers during the Napoleonic Wars, but it is usually extremely difficult to find the material they actually provided or worked on.


50) Just as the code breaking has its wider relevance in the struggle for Spain, so his attempts to make his way up the promotion ladder speak volumes about British society.